How To Write An Article Title In An Essay Mla Guidelines

Always ask your Mentor which style to use before you begin your paper.

The MLA style refers to the method of writing research papers recommended by the Modern Language Association. The MLA style is used in some areas of the humanities, e.g., composition and literature. Other humanities disciplines such as history, philosophy, and religion may require other styles for formatting your papers. Ask your Primary Mentor which style to use, then come to the Writing Center for further guidance.

  • Always double space, including the text of your paper, quotations, notes, and the list of works cited.
  • Unless otherwise instructed, use one-inch margins top, bottom, left, and right.
  • Use parenthetical citations to acknowledge direct quotations, indirect quotations, and/or any ideas you have borrowed from another person.
  • Use a Works Cited page for reference to parenthetical citations.
  • Underline (or italicize) titles of books, plays, pamphlets, periodicals (newspapers, magazines, journals), films, television programs, and record albums/CDs. Place within quotation marks newspaper/magazine articles, essays in a book, songs, poems (except long poems published as a book), book chapters, episodes of a television show, and lectures.
  • Number pages in the upper right hand corner of the page.
  • Use present tense to introduce cited or quoted material and to make personal comments on such materials. Use past tense only when directly quoting a passage that is in past tense or when reporting historical events.
  • As Winkleman states in the novel Diary of a Madman, "I was never ignorant" (293). Winkleman's purpose in Diary of a Madmanis to point out the innate imperfection of humans. Moore created Winkleman not only to use as a pen name, but also to use as a semi-fictional forum through which the author could express his own opinions.

    Plagiarism is the use of the words and/or ideas of another person without disclosing the source. Whether deliberate or unintentional, plagiarism can lead to failure in a course and/or dismissal from college. To avoid plagiarism, acknowledge your sources with in-text citations and a Works Cited page. Always cite direct quotations(see below). If you use another person's idea or paraphrase another person's words, don't simply rearrange the words. Instead, make sure to use your own style of writing and language, and use an in-text citation to acknowledge the source. Then, list on the Works Cited page the publications or sources from which you obtained your citations.

    The Writing Center here at GVC has a separate handout on this called, "Plagiarism and How to Avoid it: Guidelines for Students."

    I. In-text Citations

  • First Appearance

    Cite the first appearance of or reference to another person's words or ideas by introducing the quotation, paraphrase, or citation with the author's full name exactly as it appears in the source, but exclude titles such as Mr., Mrs., Ms., Miss, Dr., Reverend, etc. Be sure to include the page number(s) on which the cited material can be found. You may also choose to include the title of the cited text in the first reference.

    Rebecca Peacey states in The Art of the Short Story that, to write good fiction, authors of short fiction must master grammar and punctuation (17).

    The phrase "Rebecca Peacey states in The Art of the Short Story that, ..." is the signal phrase in this example.

    Note:After the first appearance, use only the author's last name within the text of your writing; you do not need to restate the name of the text.

    Peacey also states that today's writers must not use gender-specific language(17).

  • Authors Name Not Used in Text

    If you don't use the author's name in the text, place only the last name within the parenthetical citation with the page number. In the parenthetical citation, don't use "p." or "pp." to indicate page number(s), and don't include the text's title.

    Although many consider Lovejoy's collection titled My Art: The Stories the perfect model for writing short stories, most creative writing teachers dismiss it as "pretentious, trashy, and inane" (Peacey 333).

  • More Than One Author

    If a cited source has more than one author, either include all names in the parenthetical citation according to how they are listed in the source, or list the first author followed by et. al.

    Critics harshly emphasize Lovejoy's chronic use of stale metaphor, cliched symbolism, and predictable twists of irony in his short stories (Newman, Banya, Benis, and Cramer 814).

    or

    Critics harshly emphasize Lovejoy's chronic use of stale metaphor, cliched symbolism, and predictable twists of irony in his short stories (Newman, et. al. 814).

    Note:Make a clear distinction between your words and another person's words so the reader knows where borrowed ideas, paraphrased passages, and/or direct quotations begin and end. In the following example of what not to do, there is no clear distinction between the student's words and ideas and the cited author's words and ideas.

    Trent Lovejoy uses a variety of avian symbolism in his fiction. Doves represent peace. Eagles stand for self-deterministic freedom. Ravens signify the mysterious. Vultures symbolize either death or opportunism. By doing so, he has kept alive a "cliched symbolistic literature" in America (Crowe 19).

    In comparison, the following passage clearly delineates words and ideas, and the reader of this passage can see that the student borrowed both a direct quotation and ideas from Crowe's book, For the Birds.

    In For the Birds, James Crowe explains that Trent Lovejoy uses avian symbols to represent peace, freedom, mystery, death, and opportunism. In doing so, Crowe argues that Lovejoy has managed to keep alive the tradition of "cliched symbolistic literature" for America (189).

    If you are citing an author who has been quoted in another book or article, use the original author's name in the text and the author of the source in which you found the quotation in the parenthetical citation.

    It is far more important for authors to ". . .honor the semiotic tradition by using established symbolism" than it is for them to create new symbols as Lovejoy asserts (qtd. in Crowe: 278).

  • Quotation Lengths

    1. Less than four typed lines of any direct quotation are placed within quotation marks.

      Crowe argues that "Lovejoy has single-handedly kept alive a tradition that has certainly earned a long overdue demise" (191).

    2. More than four typed lines of any direct quotation must be indented. From the left margin, indent one inch on a computer or ten spaces on a typewriter. Double space the quotation, and don't use quotation marks. Insert a parenthetical citation two spaces after the last punctuation mark of the quotation.

      Peacey states that many authors of contemporary short fiction have not mastered the commonly accepted set of prescriptive rules by which standard American English is defined. She argues that such a lack of proficiency is detrimental to these authors' works and may well be damaging to the language as a whole. She makes this observation:

      Authors of fiction have always manipulated the grammar of their respective eras. Whether writing in dialect to validate certain characters or stylistically misusing a language, fictionists have routinely broken grammatical rules. However, the misuse of language by contemporary writers is more often the result of ignorance of grammar than it is of creative design. For a variety of reasons, not the least of which is academic political correctness, many contemporary American authors simply do not know a grammar that delineates the language in which they write. Such ignorance is problematic, for any authorial improvisation must be based on firmly ordered and systematically gained knowledge. (198)

      As can be understood from this passage, Peacey clearly believes that the mastery of the rules precedes creativity.

    3. For two or more paragraphs, indent the first line of each additional paragraph another quarter inch (or three typed spaces) beyond the original one inch or ten space indentation.

  • Two or More Works by the Same Author

    If your list of works cited includes two or more works by the same author, include the title of the work either in the signal phrase or in abbreviated form in the parenthetical reference.

    In his article "California and the West," reporter T. Christian Miller asserts that from 1990 to 1997, California spent roughly $26 million on conservation lands "to provide habitat for exactly 2.6 mountain lions" (A3). According to T. Christian Miller. "Mountain lions, also called pumas or cougars, range vast territories in search of food, sometimes as large as 100 square miles" ("Cougars" 1).

    Note:The title of an article from a periodical should be put in quotation marks, as in the examples. The title of a book should be underlined or italicized. When both the author and a short title must be given in parentheses, the citation should appear as follows:

    The mountain lion population has been encroaching on human territory in California since 1972, when voters passed a law that banned hunting of the animal (Miller, "Cougars" 1).

  • The Author Is Unknown

    If the author is not given, either use the complete title in a signal phrase or use a short form of the title in the parentheses.

    In California, fish and game officials estimate that since 1972 lion numbers have increased from 2,400 to at least 6,000 ("Lion" A21).

  • Authors With the Same Last Name

    If your list of works cited includes works by two or more authors with the same last name, include the first name of the author you are citing in the signal phrase or parenthetical reference.

    At least 66,665 lions were killed between 1907 and 1978 in Canada and the United States (Kevin Hansen 58).

  • A Novel, a Play, or a Poem

    1. In citing literary sources, include information that will enable readers to find the passage in various editions of the work. For a novel, put the page number first and then, if possible, indicate the part or chapter in which the passage can be found.

    Fitzgerald's narrator captures Gatsby in a moment of isolation: "A sudden emptiness seemed to flow now from the windows and the great doors, endowing with complete isolation the figure of the host"(56: ch. 3).

    1. For a verse play, list the act, scene, and line numbers, separated by periods. Use Arabic numerals unless your instructor prefers Roman numerals.

    In his famous advice to the players, Hamlet defines the purpose of theater, ". . . whose end, both at the first and now, was and is, to hold, as 'twere, the mirror up to nature" (3.2.21-23).

    1. For a poem, cite the part (if there are a number of parts) and the line numbers, separated by periods.

    When Homer's Odysseus comes to the hall of Circe, he finds his men ". . . mild / in her soft spell, fed on her drug of evil" (10.209-11).

  • The Bible

    If the book of the Bible that you are citing does not appear in the signal phrase, include it in parentheses along with the chapter and verse numbers.

    Consider the words of Solomon: "If your enemy is hungry, give him bread to eat; and if he is thirsty, give him water to drink" (Prov. 25.21).

    Note: If it is relevant, you may also include the version of the Bible you are citing:(Prov. 25.21, RSV).

  • Two or More Works

    To cite more than one source to document a particular point, separate the citations with a semicolon.

    The dangers of mountain lions to humans have been well documented (Rychnovsky 40; Seidensticker 114; Williams30).

    Note:Multiple citations can be distracting to readers, however, so the techniques should not be overused. If you want to alert readers to several sources that discuss a particular topic, consider using an information note instead.

  • A Work without Page Numbers

    You may omit the page number if a work has no page numbers. Some electronic sources use paragraph numbers instead of page numbers. For such sources, use the abbreviation "par." or "pars." in the parentheses:(Smith, par. 4).

  • An Electronic Source

    To cite an electronic source in the text of your paper, follow the same rules as for print sources. If the source has an author and there is a page number, provide both.

    Using historical writings about leprosy as an example, Demaitre argues that ". . . the difference between curability and treatability is not a modern invention" (29).

    Note: Electronic sources often lack page numbers. If the source uses some other numbering system, such as paragraphs or sections, specify them, using an abbreviation ("par.," "sec.") or a full word ("screen"). Otherwise, use no number at all.

    A clip of the film Demolition d'un mur demonstrates that "cinema is all about transformation, not mere movement" (Routt, sec. 1). Volti writes, "As with all significant innovations, the history of the automobile shows that technological advance is fueled by more than economic calculation."

    Note:If the electronic source has no known author, either use the complete title in a signal phrase or use a short form of the title in parentheses.

    According to a Web page sponsored by the Children's Defense Fund, fourteen American children die from gunfire each day ("Child")

  • Use four ellipsis points to indicate the omission of an entire sentence within a quotation.

    Peacey claims that ". . . although a living language is constantly changing . . . . It is the author's duty to be aware of the language's grammatical conventions as well as to be knowledgeable of its linguistic history" (7).

  • Use four spaced periods to indicate an omission at the end of a direct quotation. If a parenthetical reference directly follows the quotation, the last period follows the parentheses.

    Lovejoy argues that ". . . authors are duty-bound to carry on the semiotic tradition as it is inherited from those authors who precede them . . ." (4).

  • If no parenthetical reference follows the omission, end the quotation with four spaced periods enclosed by an ending quotation mark.

    Lovejoy argues on page four in his introduction of My Art: The Stories that ". . . the author is duty-bound to carry on the semiotic tradition as presented to him by those authors who precede him . . . ."

  • Books

    Begin each reference at the left hand margin. List the author's last name first, then the first name followed by a period. Type two spaces, then list the title of the book underlined and with the first letter of all major words capitalized. A period follows (not underlined). Next list the place (city) of publication followed by a colon, one space, the publisher followed by a comma, and the year of publication followed by a period. Omit the words Publishing Company and Inc. from the publisher's name. If the reference is more than one line in length, indent one-half inch (computer formatted) or five spaces (typed) all lines following the first. Double space all lines.

    1. Book by one Author

    Hyde, Bernard. Perspectives on Literature: The New Historical Criticism in America. Peoria: Bancroft, 1992.

    Note:List two or more books by the same author alphabetically by title. Give the author's name in the first entry only. After the first entry, type three hyphens and a period. Skip two spaces, then list the title. (In the following example, UP is the accepted MLA abbreviation for University Press).

    Britt, Ponsiby. Representation of Indigenous North American Mammalia in Twentieth Century American Humor. Frostbite Falls: Rockland UP, 1963.

    ---. Character Stereotypes in Cold War American Literature. Frostbite Falls: Rockland UP, 1967.

    1. Books by two or more authors -- list authors as they are listed in the book. Reverse only the first author's name.

    Ciccone, Eva, Lorna Smith, and Natasha Fatale. Femininity and Feminism in Literature: Two Views. Boston: Singleton, 1991.

    1. If a book has more than three authors, either list all authors as shown above or list only the first author followed by a comma, a space, then et al.

    Jones, Sarah, Michael Williams, Charles Porter, William Mayer, and Anthony Rofollo. Scenes in a Coffee Shop. Toronto: Middleman, 1996.

    or

    Jones, Sarah, et al. Scenes in a Coffee Shop. Toronto: Middleman, 1996.

    1. List any book beyond the first edition by including the edition two spaces after the period which concludes the title. Do not underline the designation for the edition.

    Young, Keith. Symbols of Morality. 4th ed. Scranton: Crowell, 1976.

    1. For an author's work cited in a textbook, anthology, or other full-length work, list according to the author of the cited work within the anthology. Typically, such a cited work would be an article, an essay, a short story, or a poem, so enclose the title of the cited work within quotation marks. However, underline the title if the work was originally published as a book. Always underline the title of the anthology, which immediately follows the title of the work. Include the page numbers of the anthology in which the cited work appears.

  • Editor

    An entry for an editor is similar to that for an author except that the name is followed by a comma and the abbreviation "ed." for "editor." If there is more than one editor, use the abbreviation "eds." for "editors."

    Kitchen, Judith, and Mary Paumier Jones, eds. In Short: A Collection of Brief Creative Nonfiction. New York: Norton, 1996.

  • Author with an Editor

    Begin with the author and title, followed by the name of the editor. In this case the abbreviation "Ed." means "Edited by," so it is the same for one or multiple editors.

    Wells, Ida B. The Memphis Diary. Ed. Miriam DeCosta-Willis. Boston: Beacon, 1995.

  • Translation

    List the entry under the name of the author, not the translator. After the title, write "Trans." (for "Translated by") and the name of the translator.

    Mahfouz, Naguib. Arabian Nights and Days. Trans. Denys Johnson-Davies. New York: Doubleday, 1995.

  • Unknown Author

    Begin with the title. Alphabetize the entry by the first word of the title other than A, An, or The.

    Oxford Essential World Atlas. New York: Oxford UP, 1996.

  • Edition Other Than the First

    If you are citing an edition other than the first, include the number of the edition after the title: 2nd ed., 3rd ed., and so on.

    Boyce, David George. The Irish Question and British Politics, 1868-1996. 2nd ed. New York: St. Martin's, 1996.

  • Multivolume Work

    Include the total number of volumes before the city and publisher, using the abbreviation "vols."

    Conway, Jill Ker, ed. Written by Herself. 2 vols. New York: Random, 1996.

    Note: If your paper cites only one of the volumes, give the volume number before the city and publisher and give the total number of volumes in the work after the date.

    Conway, Jill Ker, ed. Written by Herself. Vol. 2. New York: Random, 1996. 2 vols.

  • Encyclopedia or Dictionary

    Articles in well-known dictionaries and encyclopedias are handled in abbreviated form. Simply list the author of the article (if there is one), the title of the article, the title of the reference work, the edition number, if any, and the date of the edition.

    "Sonata." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th ed. 1997.

    Note: Volume and page numbers are not necessary because the entries are arranged alphabetically and therefore are easy to locate. If a reference work is not well known, provide full publishing information as well.

  • The Bible

    The Bible is not included in the list of works cited. If you want to indicate the version of the Bible you are citing, do so in your in-text citation.

  • Work in an Anthology

    Present the information in this order, with each item followed by a period: author of the selection; title of the selection; title of the anthology; editor of the anthology, preceded by "Ed." (meaning "Edited by"); city, publisher, and date; page numbers on which the selection appears.

    Malouf, David. "The Kyogle Line." The Oxford Book of Travel Stories. Ed. Patricia Craig. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. 390-96.

    Note:If an anthology gives the original publication information for a selection and if your instructor prefers that you use it, cite that information first. Follow with "Rpt. in" (for "Reprinted in"), the title, editor, and publication information for the anthology, and the page numbers in the anthology on which the selection appears.

    Rodriguez, Richard. "Late Victorians." Harper's Oct. 1990: 57-66. Rpt. in The Best American Essays 1991. Ed. Joyce Carol Oates. New York: Ticknor, 1991. 119-34.

  • Two or More Works From the Same Anthology

    If you wish, you may cross-reference two or more works from the same anthology. Provide a separate entry for the anthology with complete publication information.

    Craig, Patricia, ed. The Oxford Book of Travel Stories. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996.

    Then list each selection separately, giving the author and title of the selection followed by a cross-reference to the anthology. The cross-reference should include the last name of the editor of the anthology and the page numbers in the anthology on which the selection appears.

    Desai, Anita. "Scholar and Gypsy." Craig 251-73.

    Malouf, David. "The Kyogle Line." Craig 390-96.

  • Foreword, Introduction, Preface, or Afterword

    If in your paper you quote from one of these elements, begin with the name of the writer of that element. Then identify the element being cited, neither underlined nor in quotation marks, followed by the title of the complete book, the book's author, and the book's editor, if any. After the publication information, give the page numbers on which the foreword, introduction, preface, or afterword appears.

    Kennedy, Edward M. Foreword. Make a Difference. Henry W. Foster, Jr., and Alice Greenwood. New York: Scribner, 1997. 9-15.

  • Book with a Title within Its Title

    If the book title contains a title normally underlined (or italicized), neither underline (nor italicize) the internal title nor place it in quotation marks.

    Vanderham, Paul. James Joyce and Censorship: The Trials of Ulysses. New York: New York UP, 1997.

    Note:If the title within the title is normally enclosed within quotation marks, retain the quotation marks and underline (or italicize) the entire title.

    Faulkner, Dewey R. Twentieth Century Interpretations of "The Pardoner's Tale." Englewood Cliffs: Spectrum-Prentice, 1973.

  • Book in a Series

    Before the publication information, cite the series name as it appears on the title page followed by the series number, if any.

    Malena, Anne. The Dynamics of Identity in Francophone Caribbean Narrative. Francophone Cultures and Literatures Ser. 24. New York: Lang, 1998.

  • Republished Book

    After the title of the book, cite the original publication date followed by the current publication information. If the republished book contains new material, such as an introduction or afterword, include that information after the original date.

    McClintock, Walter. Old Indian Trails. 1926. Foreword William Least Heat Moon. Boston: Houghton, 1992.

  • Publisher's Imprint

    If a book was published by an imprint of a publishing company, cite the name of the imprint followed by a hyphen and the publisher's name. The name of the imprint usually precedes the publisher's name on the title page.

    Coles, Robert. The Moral Intelligence of Children: How to Raise a Moral Child. New York: Plume-Random, 1997.

  • Translation

    List the entry under the name of the author, not the translator. After the title, write "Trans." (for "Translated by") and the name of the translator.

    Mahfouz, Naguib. Arabian Nights and Days. Trans. Denys Johnson-Davies. New York: Doubleday, 1995.

  • Periodicals

    Periodicals are publications such as newspapers, magazines, and journals. Generally, list the author(s), title of article in quotation marks, name of the journal underlined, series number (if relevant), volume number (for journals), issue number (if needed), date of publication, and inclusive page numbers not preceded by "p." or "pp." If the article is not published on consecutive pages, include only the page number on which the article first appears, followed by a + sign with no space in between.

  • Journals

    Many scholarly journals are paged continuously throughout the year. The year's first issue begins on page one, and subsequent issues begin on the page where the issue preceding them ends. Therefore, listing the month of publication is unnecessary. Instead, list the volume number followed by the year of publication in parentheses. Then include a colon followed by page number(s) on which the article appears.

    Gregory, Norman. "Australian Aboriginal Dialects." The Journal of Modern Languages 75 (1987): 74-101.

    However, some journals page each issue separately. In such cases, include in the bibliographic citation the volume number immediately followed by a period, which is immediately followed by the issue number.

    Douglas, Oliver. "Gentrification of Rural Lands: Migration Beyond the Suburb." The American Quarterly 18.2 (1969): 12-24.

  • Magazines

    1. Weekly

      For a magazine published weekly or biweekly, follow the general directions for periodicals, but include the entire date with the day first, followed by the month (abbreviated) and year. Do not include an issue or volume number.

    Ziffel, Arnold. "Confessions of an Overeater." Pound Watchers Weekly 8 June 1970: 14-17.

    1. Monthly

      Follow the directions for a weekly magazine, but do not include the day of publication.

    Douglas, Lisa. "To Live on Park Avenue." Urban Life Sept. 1970: 36-44.

  • Newspaper

    List the author(s); title of the article in quotation marks, name of newspaper as it appears on the masthead omitting any introductory article such as "the," the complete date of publication -- day, month, and year, a colon, and a page number(s) (including section designation such as A and B or 1 and 2 if included) as listed in the newspaper. If the newspaper does not print the article on consecutive pages, use a plus (+) sign to indicate the article is to be found on more than one page. Omit any volume or issue numbers.

    1. Lettered Sections

    Charles, Raymond. "School Administration Closes Middle School Library." The Chronicle of S Learning 12 Sept. 1990: A1-A6.

    1. Numbered Sections

    Wilbert, Kenneth. "Writer Searches America for Lost Hope." Mecklenburg Tribune 24 Aug. 1987, sec. 2: 1+.

  • Overview of MLA 8 Format

    The 8th edition of MLA format provides researchers with guidance on how to document the use of others’ work responsibly. Published in April 2016, the new handbook illustrates examples of citations made in the revised style, and explains how to create two types of citations: full citations that are placed in a works cited list, and in-text citations, which are abbreviated versions of full citations and located in the body of the work.

    For a visual guide to MLA 8 citations, see our infographic.

    For a PDF guide to general MLA 8 guidelines,click here.

    MLA 8th Edition: What’s New?

    With the new MLA citation format, a major change was made to how full citations are created and how MLA works cited pages are formatted. Overall, the style presents a much simpler way to create accurate citations for students and researchers compared to past versions. Let’s take a look at the major changes:

    1. One standard citation format that applies to every source type

    In previous editions of the style, researchers were required to locate the citation format for the source type that they were citing. For instance, if they were trying to cite a scholarly journal article, they would have to find and reference the rules for citing journals. This has become inefficient in modern writing, however, as we are digesting information from a more broad variety of sources than ever before. With information readily available in tweets, Facebook posts, blogs, etc., it has become unrealistic for writers to create citation formats for every source type. To address this, there is now one universal format that  can be used to create citations, which is displayed in MLA 8.

    To properly use this new format, the researcher is required to locate the “Core Elements” of each source used in their paper. These “core elements” are what make up the information that will populate each citation. These pieces of information can also be found in the forms in the MLA citation generator.

    The “Core Elements” of a citation, along with their corresponding punctuation marks, include the following:

    1. Authors.
    2. Title of the source.
    3. Title of container,
    4. Other contributors,
    5. Version,
    6. Numbers,
    7. Publisher,
    8. Publication date,
    9. Location.

    The appropriate punctuation mark must follow each core element, unless it is the final piece. In that situation, the punctuation mark should always be a period.

    These core elements are then placed within the citation, and generally follow this format:

    Author. Title. Title of the container. Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher’s name, Date of publication, Location

    Here is an example of how an actual citation (in this case, for a book) looks when written using the 8th edition style:

    Goodwin, Doris. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. Simon & Schuster, 2012.

    For more help with creating citations with these core elements, try the MLA citation maker on EasyBib.com.

    2. Inclusion of “containers” in citations

    When the source you are referencing is actually a small part of a larger source, such as a chapter within a book, the larger source is called the “container,” as it “contains” the smaller source. Generally, the container is italicized and is followed by a comma. For more details on this, see the examples below. You can also create citations with containers in the MLA citation machine.

    MLA citation format for citing a title within a container might look as follows:

    Source Author(s) Last Name, First Name. “Title of Source.” Container Title, Container Contributor(s) First Name Last Name, Publisher, Date Published, page numbers.

    Here is an example full citation of how to cite a book chapter using the 8th edition format:

    Uenten, Wesley Iwao. “Rising Up from a Sea of Discontent: The 1970 Koza Uprising in U.S. Occupied Okinawa.” Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in Asia and the Pacific, edited by Setsu Shigematsu and Keith L. Camacho, University of Minnesota Press, 2010, pp. 91-124.

    3. The ability to use pseudonyms for author names

    In order to more efficiently create accurate citations for new source types, it is now acceptable to use online handles or screen names in place of authors’ names.

    Formula:

    @TwitterHandle. “Content of Tweet.” Twitter, Date, Time, URL (omit http:// or https://).

    Example:

    @realDonaldTrump. “I will be having a general news conference on JANUARY ELEVENTH in N.Y.C. Thank you.” Twitter, 3 Jan. 2017, 6:58 p.m., twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/816433590892429312

    4. Adding the abbreviations vol. and no. to magazine and journal article citations

    In previous versions of the style, there was no indication that the numbers in periodical citations referred to the volume and issue numbers. This has changed in the 8th edition to be clearer to the reader.

    Example in MLA 7:

    O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics 30.2 (2011): 48-49. Print.

    Example in MLA 8:

    O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics, vol. 30, no. 2, 2011, pp. 48-49.

    5. Inclusion of URLS

    Unlike previous editions, the inclusion of URLs in citations is highly recommended by the 8th edition.

    Omit “http://” or “https://” from the URL when including it in a citation.

    6. Omitting the city of publication

    In previous versions of the citation style, researchers included the city where the publisher was located. Today, this information generally serves little purpose and the city of publication can often be omitted.

    It is suggested that you include the city of publication if the version of the source differs when published in a different country (example: British editions of books versus versions printed in the United States).

    7. Flexibility in citation formatting

    In addition to one universal format for all source types, the 8th edition now allows for more flexibility in citation presentation than previous versions of the style. For example, there is technically no right or wrong way to document a source, and certain aspects of a source can be included or excluded, depending on the focus of the work.

    For example, if you are citing the movie, Casablanca, and your research project focuses on the main character, Rick Blaine, it would be beneficial to your reader for you to include the name of the actor, Humphrey Bogart, in your citation. Other writers who instead focus on the whole movie in their paper may elect to just include the name of the director in their works cited page.

    To create the best and most effective citations, you always should think about which pieces of information will help readers easily locate the source you referenced themselves, should they wish to do so.

    More on MLA 8.

    8th Edition: Formatting Guidelines

    Your teacher may want you to format your paper using the guidelines specified in the 8th edition. If you were told to create your citations in this format, your the rest of your paper should be formatted using the new MLA guidelines as well.  

    General guidelines:

    1. Use white 8 ½  x 11” paper.
    2. Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and sides
    3. The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch.
    4. Indent set-off quotations one inch from the left margin
    5. Use any type of font that is easy to read, such as Times New Roman. Make sure that italics look different from the regular typeface
    6. Use 12 point size
    7. Double space the entire research paper, even the works cited page.
    8. Leave one space after periods and other punctuation marks, unless your instructor tells you to make two spaces.
    9. You can either create a title page usingEasyBib’s Title Page creator or omit the title page completely and use a header.

    To create a MLA header, follow these steps:

    • Begin one inch from the top of the first page and flush with the left margin.
    • Type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number, and the date on separate lines, using double spaces between each.
    • Double space once more and center the title. Do NOT underline, bold, or type the title in all capital letters. Only italicize words that would normally be italicized in the text. Example: Character Development in The Great Gatsby.
    • Do not place a period after the title or after any heading.
    • Double space between the title and first lines of the text.

    Example:

    Page Numbers

    • Placed in the upper right-hand corner, one half inch from the top, flush with the right margin.
    • Type your last name before the page number. (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add the last name and page number to each page).
    • Do not place p. before the page number.
    • Many instructors do not want a page number on the first page. Ask your instructor for their specific preferences.

    Example:

    Tables and Illustrations

    • Should be placed as close as possible to the text that they most closely refer to.
    • Label tables with: “Table,” an arabic numeral, and create a title for it.
      • This information should be located above the table, flush left, on separate lines.
      • Format the title the same way as the title of the paper.
      • Underneath the table, provide the source and any notes. Notes should be labeled with a letter, rather than a numeral, so the reader is able to differentiate between the notes of the text and the notes of the table.
      • Use double spacing throughout.
      • Label illustrations with: Fig. (short for figure), assign an arabic number, and provide a caption.
        • The label and caption should appear underneath the illustration.
        • **If the table or illustration’s caption gives complete information about the source and the source isn’t cited in the text, there is no need to include the citation in the works cited page.
    • Label musical scores with: Ex. (short for Example), assign it an Arabic numeral, and provide a caption.
      • The label and caption should appear below the musical illustration.

    Use of Numerals

    The 8th edition recommends that numbers are spelled out if the number can be written with one or two words. For larger numbers, write the number itself.

    Examples:

    One, forty four, one hundred, 247, 2 ½, 101

    If the project calls for frequent use of numbers (such as a scientific study or statistics), use numerals that precede measurements.

    Examples:

    247 milligrams, 5 pounds

    Here are some other formatting tips to keep in mind:

    • Do not start sentences with a numeral, spell out the number.
    • Always use numerals before abbreviations or symbols, ex. 6 lbs.
    • In divisions, use numbers, ex: In page 5 of the study

    8th Edition: Works Cited Lists

    The purpose of an MLA works cited list is to display the sources that were used for a project, and to give credit to the original authors of the works that were consulted for a project. Works Cited lists are typically found at the very end of a project. Citations are what make up a works cited list.

    Here are some tips on how to create a works cited list for your citations:

    • Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation, which is typically the last name of the author.
    • Each citation should have a hanging indent.

    When there are two or more sources with the same author, only include the author’s name in the first citation. In the second or subsequent citations, use three hyphens in place of the author’s name, followed by a period.

    Example:

    Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007.

    – – -. Colonial America. Oxford UP, 1999.

    If the author is listed along with another author, type out the full name of each author, do not use the hyphens and periods.

    Example:

    Sparks, Nicholas. The Notebook. Warner, 1996.

    —. A Walk to Remember. Warner, 1999.

    Two or more works by the same author:

    Example:

    Rosenthal, Amy Krouse, and Tom Lichtenheld. Duck! Rabbit! San Francisco: Chronicle, 2009.

    —. Exclamation Mark! Scholastic, 2013.

    • The Works Cited list typically appears at the end of a paper.
    • Make the Works Cited page the next consecutive page number. If the last page of your project is page 12, the Works Cited list will be page 13.
    • An annotated bibliography is different than a Works Cited list. An annotated bibliography includes brief summaries and evaluations of the sources.
    • Use one-inch margins around the page. Double-space the entire document.
    • Place the title of the page (Works Cited) in the center of the page, an inch from the top.
    • Create a double space between the title (Works Cited) and the first citation.
    • Each citation should start on the left margin (one inch from the side of the paper).

    Example of a Works Cited List:

    Connell, James. “The Battle of Yorktown: What Don’t We Know?” The American History Journal, vol. 19, no. 6, 2005, pp. 36-43.

    Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007.

    – – -. Colonial America. Oxford UP, 1999.

    The Patriot. Directed by Roland Emmerich, performed by Mel Gibson and Heath Ledger. Columbia Pictures, 2002.

    8th Edition: Formatting “Core Elements”

    Formatting: Titles

    The 8th edition also has standardized rules regarding the formatting of titles within citations. Here are some of the rules pertaining to titles in the new MLA format:

    How to Format Book Titles:

    When citing book titles, always enter the full title, in italics, followed by a period.  

    See the MLA format citation below:

    Last Name, First Name. Italicized Title. Publisher, Publication Year.

    Click here for additional information on book titles.

    How to Format Periodical Titles:

    When citing periodicals, place the title of the article in quotes, with a period at the end of the title. The italicized title of the periodical follows, along with a comma.

    An MLA format example is below:

    Last Name, First Name. “Title of the Article.” Periodical Title.” Publication Year, Page Numbers.

    How to Format Website Titles:

    When citing a website, the title of the webpage or article is placed in quotation marks, with a period before the end quotation. The title of the website is written in italics followed by a comma. If the name of the publisher differs from the name of the website, include it after the title. Immediately following the publisher is the date that the page or article was published, or posted. Finally, end with the URL. The URL is the website’s address.

    The citation format is as follows:

    Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL.

    Click here for additional information on website titles.

    Formatting: Authors

    Giving credit to the author of works that you use in your research paper is not only important for citation accuracy, but will prevent plagiarism. In order to include the author’s name in your citation, follow the guidelines listed below:

    One Author:

    Author formatting: Olsen, Gregg.

    Citation example:

    Olsen, Gregg. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children. St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22.

    Two Authors:

    Place the authors in the order in which they appear on the source. Note that only the lead author’s name is listed last name first; all additional authors are listed by their first name, middle initial if applicable, and then last name:

    Author formatting: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske.

    Citation example:

    Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford: UP, 2007.

    Three or More Authors:

    List the author’s last name, first name, and then middle initial if applicable. Follow it with a comma, and then add et al. in place of the additional authors:

    Author formatting: George, Michael L., et al.

    Citation example:

    George, Michael L., et al. The Lean Six Sigma Pocket Toolbook. McGraw-Hill, 2005.

    Individuals Other Than an Author:

    In cases where the person responsible for creating a work is someone other than the author, such as an editor, producer, performer, or artist, always include the individual’s role after the name:

    Kansaker, Tej Ratna, and Mark Turin, editors.  

    When citing works of entertainment, such as film or television, include the name and role of the person on whom you’ve focused:

    Byrne, Rose, performer.

    *Note: If you are writing about a film or television show that does not focus on an individual’s role, omit the author’s name and start the citation with the title.

    If a corporation is the author of the text, include the full name of the corporation:

    The American Heart Association.

    Translated Works:

    Treat the translator as the author. You should do this only if the focus of your paper is on the original translated work. Include the name of the original creator after the title, preceded by the word “By”:

    Author formatting: Rabassa, Gregory, translator.
    Citation example:

    Rabassa, Gregory, translator. One Hundred Years of Solitude. By Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Random House, 1995.

    No Author:

    When no author is given in a text, omit this section and start the citation with the title.

    Formatting: Versions

    Sources can be released in different versions, or forms. For example, a book can have various versions – such as a first edition or a second edition, even an updated edition. A movie can have an unrated or an uncut version. It is important to communicate to the reader which version was used to. This will help them locate the exact source themselves.

    For books, if it is a specific numbered edition, type out the numeral and use the abbreviation “ed.” for edition.

    If no specific version is mentioned or located, omit this information from the citation.

    Examples of 8th edition citations for sources with various versions:

    Weinberger, Norman M. “The Auditory System and Elements of Music” The Psychology of Music, edited by Diana Deutsch, 2nd ed., Academic Press, 1999, p.61. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=A3jkobk4yMMC&lpg=PP1&dq=psychology&pg=PR6#v=onepage&q=psychology&f=false.

    JFK. Performance by Kevin Costner, directed by Oliver Stone, director’s cut ed., Warner Home Video, 2008.

    Formatting: Dates

    When including the date of publication, there aren’t any set rules to how the date should be input into the citation. For example, you can use May 5, 2016 or 5 May 2016. What does matter is consistency. Whichever way the date is placed in one citation, the same format should be used in the other citations in your project.

    Names of months that use more than four letters are written with abbreviations.

    Examples:

    Jan., Sept., Nov.

    In-Text Citations

    Researchers place brief parenthetical descriptions to acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Generally, you want to provide the last name of the author and the specific page numbers of the source. If such information is already given in the body of the sentence, then exclude it from the parenthetical citation.

    When citing websites, just include the author’s last name and/or a shortened version of the webpage title.

    Place the parenthetical citation where there is a pause in the sentence – normally before the end of a sentence or a comma. The in-text citation will differ depending on how much information you provide within the sentence.

    Example in text citation:

    (Author Last Page Number[s]).

    (Rowling 19). Find out more here.

    In-Text Citations with more than one author

    If you use sources with the same author surnames, then include a first name initial. If the two sources have authors with the same initials, then include their full names.

    Example:

    (J. Johnson 12-13).

    Or

    (John Johnson 12-13).

    If there are two or three authors of the source, include their last names in the order they appear on the source:

    Example:

    (Smith, Wollensky, and Johnson 45).

    If there are more than three authors, you can cite all the authors with their last name, or you can cite the first author followed by “et al.” Follow what is shown the works cited list.

    Example:

    (Smith et al. 45).

    In-Text Citations without an author

    Some sources do not have authors or contributors—for instance, when you cite some websites. Instead, refer to the name of the source in your parenthetical citation in place of the author. Shorten/abbreviate the name of the source but ensure that your reader can easily identify it in your works cited (abbreviate the title starting with the same word in which it is alphabetized). Punctuate with quotations or italicize as you would in its works cited form (a book is italicized; an article is in quotes).

    Examples:

    Double agents are still widely in use (Spies 12-15, 17).

    With prices of energy at new highs, bikes have been increasingly used (“Alternative Transportation” 89).

    Citing Part of a Work in the text

    When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page or section identifier. This can include specific pages, sections, paragraphs or volumes. When the identifier is preceded by an abbreviation or word, place a comma between the identifier and the source reference.

    Article in a Periodical in the text

    When citing a specific page(s) of a multivolume work, precede the page number by the volume number and a colon. Do not separate by a comma.

    It was arguably the most innovative period in history (Webster 4:12-15).

    Use “par.” or “pars.” when referring to specific paragraphs.

    The marketing dollars of big studio films has overshadowed good indie movies (Anderson, pars. 12-34).

    Citing Group or Corporate Authors in the text

    In your parenthetical citation, cite a corporate author like you would a normal author. Preferably, incorporate the corporate author in your text instead of the parenthetical citation.

    Facial transplants pose significant risk to the autoimmune system (American Medical Association 12-43).

    As noted by the American Medical Association, facial transplants pose significant risk to the autoimmune system (12-43).

    Citing an Entire Source in the text

    When citing an entire work, there are no specific page numbers to refer to. Therefore it is preferable to refer to the source within the text itself with either the author or the title of the source.

    Hartford suggests the Internet provides more distractions than it does information.

    Citing Indirect Sources in the text

    When an original source is unavailable, then cite the secondhand source – for instance, a lecture in a conference proceedings. When quoting or paraphrasing a quote, write “qtd. in” before the author and pages.

    John Murray calls Tim Smith “interesting but egotistical” (qtd. in Jesrani 34).

    Citing Classical/Religious Sources in the text

    For works such as novels, plays and other classic works, it’s helpful to provide further identifying information along with the page information. Do this by adding a semicolon and then the identifying information following the page number.

    (Tolstoy 5; pt. 2, ch. 3).

    When citing classic poems and plays, replace page numbers with division numbers (part, book, scene, act). The below refers to book 10 line 5. Bear in mind the divisions and the way they are written can vary by source.

    Fear plays a role in Homer’s Odyssey (10.5).

    The title of books in the Bible and other famous literary works should be abbreviated.

    (New Jerusalem Bible, Gen. 2.6-9).<?p>

    Where to Place In-Text Citations

    Place parenthetical citations at the end of the sentence you are paraphrasing and quoting. For example: The destruction of the argentine is due to many socioeconomic factors (Taylor 33).

    Even when quoting, place the parenthetical citations after the quotations.

    “Mamma always said stupid is as stupid does” (Gump 89).

    Placing In-text Citations After Direct Quotes

    When directly quoting a source, place the parenthetical citation after the quote.

    Sanders explains that economic woes are due to “the mortgage crisis and poor risk assessment” (20).

    Long Quotes

    When quoting four lines or more, indent every line you are quoting by one inch (or 10 spaces) and do not use quotes.

    Example:

    The use of nuclear weapons in today’s society is strikingly alarming. Though the United States is the only country to employ it in the past, they are at the same time the country that condemns its use the most. While this may seem hypocritical, is it the most proper action for the United States to make as the global leader (Taparia 9).

    Why We Use In-Text Citations

    Researchers place brief parenthetical descriptions to acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Generally, you want to provide the last name of the author and the specific page numbers of the source. If such information is already given in the body of the sentence, then exclude it from the parenthetical citation.

    Citing Sources in MLA 8

    Ready to start citing? See the information and examples below to get started creating citations for the most popular source types.

    *Please note that these are only some of the ways you can cite sources in MLA 8. If you need further assistance, consult the MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition, or ask your teacher or librarian.

    How to Cite a Print Book:

    Book – A written work or composition that has been published – typically printed on pages bound together.

    Much of the information needed to cite a book can be located on the title page:

    Formula:

    Author’s Last name, First name. Title of the work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s).

    Examples:

    Roth, Veronica. Divergent. Katherine Tegen Books, 2011.

    Olsen, Gregg, and Rebecca Morris. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children. St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22.

    Matthews, Graham, et al. Disaster Management in Archives, Libraries, and Museums. Ashgate, 2009.

    How to Cite a Book Chapter:

    Formula:

    Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of chapter or section.” Title of the work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s).

    Example:

    Montrose, Louis. “Elizabeth Through the Looking Glass: Picturing the Queen’s Two Bodies.” The Body of the Queen: Gender and Rule in the Courtly World, 1500-2000, edited by Regina Schulte, Berghahn, 2006, pp. 61-87.

    How to Cite an E-book Found Online:

    Formula:

    Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Title of the web site or database, URL.

    Examples:

    Austen, Jane, and Seth Grahame-Smith. Pride and Prejudice and Zombies. Quirk, 2015. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=x5xPaPeZzmUC&lpg=PP1&dq=zombies&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q=zombies&f=false.

    Poe, Edgar Allan. “The Gold Bug.” Short Stories for English Courses, Edited by Rosa M.R. Mikels, 2004. Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/5403/pg5403-images.html.

    How to Cite an E-book on a Device:

    Formula:

    Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, Name of e-reader device, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s).

    Example:

    Doer, Anthony. All the Light We Cannot See. Kindle ed., Scribner, 2014.

    For more info click here.

    How to Cite a Website:

    Formula:

    Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL.

    Example:

    Feinberg, Ashley. “What’s the Safest Seat in an Airplane?.” Gizmodo, Gawker Media, 3 Aug. 2016, www.gizmodo.com/the-safest-seat.

    Click here for more on websites.

    How to Cite a Website with no author:

    Formula:

    “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL.

    Example:

    “Giant Panda.” Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, 2004, nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/giantpandas/pandafacts

    How to Cite a Website with No Webpage Title:

    Formula:

    Webpage Description. Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL.

    Example:

    General Information on the New York Mets. NYCData, The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY, www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/sports/nymets.htm.

    How to Cite a Journal Article Found on a Database:

    Journal – A periodical published by a special group or professional organization. Often focused around a particular area of study or interest. Can be scholarly in nature (featuring peer-reviewed articles), or popular (such as trade publications).

    *Note: Online databases provide access to thousands of journal articles. It is important to identify the database name when citing a journal article found through a database.

    Formula:

    Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the article.” Title of the journal, First name Last name of any other contributors (if applicable), Version (if applicable), Numbers (such as a volume and issue number), Publication date, Page numbers. Title of the database, URL or DOI.

    Example:

    Brian, Real, et al. “Rural Public Libraries and Digital Inclusion: Issues and Challenges.” Information and Technology Libraries, vol. 33, no. 1, Mar. 2014, pp. 6-24. ProQuest, ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/docview/1512388143?accountid=35635.

    How to Cite a Journal Article Found in Print:

    Formula:

    Author’s Last name, First name ” Title of the article.” Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, pages.

    Example:

    Bagchi, Alaknanda. “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu.” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.

    How to Cite an Essay:

    Follow the formula for citing a book. Cite the author of the essay, the name of the essay, the name of the collection, the editor of the collection, the publication information, and the page number(s) of the essay.

    How to Cite an Image from a Website:

    If there is no title available for the image, include a brief description of the image instead.

    Formula:

    Creator’s Last name, First name. “Title of the digital image.” Title of the website, First name Last name of any contributors, Version (if applicable), Number (if applicable), Publisher, Publication date, URL.

    Examples:

    Vasquez, Gary A. Photograph of Coach K with Team USA. NBC Olympics, USA Today Sports, 5 Aug. 2016, www.nbcolympics.com/news/rio-olympics-coach-ks-toughest-test-or-lasting-legacy.

    Gilpin, Laura. “Terraced Houses, Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico.” Library of Congress, Reproduction no. LC-USZ62-102170, 1939, www.loc.gov/pictures/item/90716883/.

    How to Cite a Photograph in a Book:

    Formula:

    Photographer Last, First M. Photograph Title. Circa Date Taken, Location/Museum. Book Title, by Author First Name Last Name, Publisher, Year Published, page number(s).

    Example:

    Bennett, Peter. East Village. Circa 1983, Museum of Modern Art. New York City: A Photogenic Portrait, by Laura Sheppard, Twin Lights, 2004, p. 8.

    How to Cite a Photograph from a Database:

    Formula:

    Photographer Last, First M. Photograph Title. Circa Year Created, Location/Museum. Database Title, URL.

    Example:

    Freed, Leonard. Holidaymaker Stuck in Traffic Jam. Circa 1965. ARTstor, www.artstor.org.

    How to Cite a Newspaper Article in Print:

    Formula:

    Last, First M. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title [City], Date Month Year Published, Page(s).

    Example:

    Bowman, Lee. “Redistricting Push Puts a Lot on Line.” Sun-Sentinel [Fort Lauderdale], 7 Mar. 1990, p. A4.

    How to Cite a Newspaper Article Found Online:

    Formula:

    Last, First M. “Article Title.” Website Title. Website Publisher, Date Month Year Published.

    Example:

    Jensen, Elizabeth. “Sesame Workshop Tackles Literacy With Technology.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 19 Oct. 2014.

    How to Cite a Magazine Article in Print:

    Formula:

    Last, First M. “Article Title.” Magazine Title, Date Month Year Published, Page(s).

    Example:

    Rothbart, Davy. “How I Caught up with Dad.” Men’s Health, Oct. 2008, pp. 108-13.

    How to Cite a Magazine Article Found Online:

    Formula:

    Last, First M. “Article Title.” Magazine Title, Date Month Year Published, URL.

    Example:

    Laurent, Olivier. “See What Undocumented Immigrants Carry Across the Border.” TIME Magazine, 30 Jan. 2015, www.time.com/364789/undocumented-immigrants.

    How to Cite a Movie:

    Formula:

    Film Title. Contributors (these can be directors, producers, performers, etc). Studio/Distributor, year released.

    Example:

    Little Miss Sunshine. Directed by Martin Scorsese, performed by Robert DeNiro and Harvey Keitel. Warner Brothers, 1973.

    How to Cite a TV Show Episode:

    Formula:

    “Episode Title.” Contributors (these can be directors, producers, performers, etc.), Show Title, Network/Channel, Air Date.

    Example:

    “Bass Player Wanted.” Narrated by Bob Saget, directed by Pamela Fryman, How I Met Your Mother, CBS, 16 Dec. 2013.

    How to Cite Content from a Streaming Service (Netflix, Hulu, Amazon prime etc.):

    Formula:

    Title of the film or video. Role of contributors and their First name Last name, Publication date. Service Name, url.

    Example:

    Kindergarten Cop. Directed by Ivan Reitman, performance by Arnold Schwarzenegger, Universal Pictures, 21 Dec. 1990. Amazon Prime, www.amazon.com/Kindergarten-Cop-Arnold-Schwarzenegger/dp/B001VLLES4.

    How to Cite a YouTube Video:

    Formula:

    Last name, First name of the creator. “Title of the film or video.” Title of the website, role of contributors and their First name Last name, Publication date, URL.

    Example:

    RotoBaller. “RotoBaller MLB: Top Fantasy Baseball Catcher Dynasty League Prospects for 2016.” YouTube, commentary by Raphael Rabe, 27 Mar. 2016, youtu.be/gK645_7TA6c.

    How to Cite a Blog Post:

    Formula:

    Last, First. “Article Title.” Website/Blog Title. Website Publisher, Day Month Year Published, URL.

    Example:

    Shaw, Julia. “The Memory of Illusion.” Mind Guest Blog, Scientific American Blogs, 13 June 2016, blogs.scientificamerican.com/mind-guest-blog/the-memory.

    How to Cite a Podcast:

    Formula:

    Host’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Podcast Episode.” Title of Overall Podcast, Episode Number if Given, Web Site Hosting If Different From Podcast Title, Day Month Year of Episode, URL of episode.

    Example:

    Orton, Tyler, and Patrick Blennerhassett. “Lessons From the Brexit.” BIV Podcast, Episode 18, Business Vancouver, 28 June 2016, www.biv.com/article/2016/6/biv-podcast-episode-18-lessons-brexit/.

    How to Cite a Tweet:

    Formula:

    Twitter Handle (First Name Last Name if Known). “The entire tweet word-for-word.” Twitter, Day Month Year of Tweet, Time of Tweet, URL.

    Example:

    @jtimberlake (Justin Timberlake). “USA! USA!!.” Twitter, 16 June 2014, 8:05 PM. www.twitter.com/jtimberlake/status/64780730286358528lang=en.

    How to Cite a Facebook Post:

    Formula:

    Author Last Name, First Name or Account Name. Description of Post. Facebook, Day Month Year of Post, Time of Post, URL.

    Example:

    Rick Mercer Report. Spread the Net Challenge Winners 2016. Facebook, 23 Mar. 2016, 9:00 a.m., www.facebook.com/rickmercerreport.

    How to Cite an Email:

    Formula:

    Email sender’s Last name, First name. “Email subject.” Received by Recipients Name, date sent.

    Example:

    Olsen, Mary. “Re: Statistics from Student Population.” Received by Jonas Conner, 15 Mar. 2015.

    How to Cite a Music Album:

    Formula:

    Artist/Group Name. Album Title. Studio/Record Label, Year Released.

    Example:

    Foo Fighters. In Your Honor. RCA, 2005

    How to Cite a Song:

    Formula:

    Artist/Group Name. “Song Title.” Album Title, Studio/Record Label, Year Released.

    Example:

    Presley, Elvis. “Jailhouse Rock.” Essential Elvis Presley, BMG, 2007.

    How to Cite Sheet Music/Scores:

    Formula:

    Composer Last Name, Composer First Name. Title of score. Date of composition. Publisher, Date of Publication.

    Example:

    Handel, G. F. Trio Sonata No. 1. 1733. Southern Music, 1989.

    How to Cite a Lecture or Speech:

    Formula:

    Last Name, First Name. “Presentation Title.” Meeting/Event. Venue, City. Date Conducted.

    Example:

    Pausch, Randy. “Really Achieving Your Childhood Dreams.” Journeys. Carnegie Mellon University. McConomy Auditorium, Pittsburgh. 18 Sept. 2007.

    How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation:

    Formula:

    Author’s Last Name, First Name. Paper Title. Dissertation or thesis, Publisher [usually a college or university], Year published.

    Example:

    Wilson, Peggy Lynn. Pedagogical Practices in the Teaching of English Language in Secondary Public Schools in Parker County. Dissertation. University of Maryland, 2011.

    How to Cite Unpublished Conference Proceedings:

    Include the name of the entire proceedings, and if there is a specific presentation or paper being cited, include this information as well. You also want to include conference information (name of conference, date, and location) if not already stated in the name of the proceedings.

    Because the conference proceedings / paper is unpublished, do not include any publication information, but instead a description of the type of document and the year it was published. Additionally, as it is important to describe where the document can be found since there is no formal publisher, you should include the location of the document. Like all citations in a works cited, try to incorporate as much information as you can find.

    Formula:

    Contributor name(s). Proceedings of the Conference Name, Location, Date. Name of  Publisher, Year.

    Example:

    Balakian, Anna, and James J. Wilhelm, editors. Proceedings of the Xth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association, New York, NY, 1982. Garland, 1985.

     


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