First, you might want to look at my list of 150 topic ideas for essays that explain. Once you have a topic, you will need to decide what way you want to approach it. Most topics can be several types of essays. Here is an example:
Types of Love (classification): Divide your concept into different categories or types (types of love, such as “Puppy Love,” “True Love,” or “Dangerous Love”). The body of the essay then discusses these categories one by one in separate paragraphs.
How to: Explain how something happens or how to do something. Divide it into parts or steps. Tell it in chronological order, use storytelling techniques and time transition words (example: “How to fall out of love or How to fall in love with your husband again.”)
Comparison and Contrast: Use something familiar to explain something unfamiliar. The body of this essay would use different aspects of the comparison for each paragraph. This uses similes, metaphors or analogies and vivid word pictures (examples: love is like a river, a basketball game, or a teeter-totter).
Cause and Effect: Show how one thing causes another to occur (example: falling in love causes you to seem more attractive to others).
Historical Overview: What is the history of this term and how did it come to have the meaning it has today? Or contrast the current meaning with a meaning from the past (example: love in the 18th century, the history of divorce, or history of the phrase “love at first sight”).
Reverse Expectations and Definition: In this sort of paper, you will compare your expectations of something, or what people usually think about this subject with what you think the reality is or the real definition of that term (example: Love is not a feeling; it is a chemical process. The body paragraphs would give the different chemicals and explain how they work to create the feelings of love).
Thesis and Purpose Statements
Use the guidelines below to learn the differences between thesis and purpose statements
In the first stages of writing, thesis or purpose statements are usually rough or ill-formed and are useful primarily as planning tools.
A thesis statement or purpose statement will emerge as you think and write about a topic. The statement can be restricted or clarified and eventually worked into an introduction.
As you revise your paper, try to phrase your thesis or purpose statement in a precise way so that it matches the content and organization of your paper.
A thesis statement is a sentence that makes an assertion about a topic and predicts how the topic will be developed. It does not simply announce a topic: it says something about the topic.
Good: X has made a significant impact on the teenage population due to its . . .
Bad: In this paper, I will discuss X.
A thesis statement makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose, and direction of the paper. It summarizes the conclusions that the writer has reached about the topic.
A thesis statement is generally located near the end of the introduction. Sometimes in a long paper, the thesis will be expressed in several sentences or an entire paragraph.
A thesis statement is focused and specific enough to be proven within the boundaries of the paper. Key words (nouns and verbs) should be specific, accurate, and indicative of the range of research, thrust of the argument or analysis, and the organization of supporting information.
A purpose statement announces the purpose, scope, and direction of the paper. It tells the reader what to expect in a paper and what the specific focus will be.
Common beginnings include:
"This paper examines . . .," "The aim of this paper is to . . .," and "The purpose of this essay is to . . ."
A purpose statement makes a promise to the reader about the development of the argument but does not preview the particular conclusions that the writer has drawn.
A purpose statement usually appears toward the end of the introduction. The purpose statement may be expressed in several sentences or even an entire paragraph.
A purpose statement is specific enough to satisfy the requirements of the assignment. Purpose statements are common in research papers in some academic disciplines, while in other disciplines they are considered too blunt or direct. If you are unsure about using a purpose statement, ask your instructor.
This paper will examine the ecological destruction of the Sahel preceding the drought and the causes of this disintegration of the land. The focus will be on the economic, political, and social relationships which brought about the environmental problems in the Sahel.
Sample purpose and thesis statements
The following example combines a purpose statement and a thesis statement (bold).
The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of Chile's agrarian reform on the lives of rural peasants. The nature of the topic dictates the use of both a chronological and a comparative analysis of peasant lives at various points during the reform period. . . The Chilean reform example provides evidence that land distribution is an essential component of both the improvement of peasant conditions and the development of a democratic society. More extensive and enduring reforms would likely have allowed Chile the opportunity to further expand these horizons.
For more tips about writing thesis statements, take a look at our new handout on Developing a Thesis Statement.